Can treasures only be stolen from a king's village that has an active treasury or from any of the king's villages? Is there a way to tell which of a king's villages has an active treasury?
Only the village with an active treasury, I believe if you scout him it will tell you how many you can possibly obtain. I think it needs to be a scouting of resources, at least that's what I've seen so far
treasures can be stolen everywhere you find some. If there is an active treasury with treasurs in the village, you can steal up to 33% in a single attack with your hero.
If the treasures are found in the tributes, you can even steal all 100% in one attack.